PHYSICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND
The different diamond colors
The most famous diamonds are the most colorless, but these magnificent gems also come in shades of blue, gray, pink, green, blue-gray, yellow-brown, and even black. This last type of diamond, very rare, would come from space where it would have formed about 3 billion years ago. Its chemical structure is different from land diamonds (they are polycrystalline aggregates) and it includes hematite.
GENESIS AND DIAMONDS-PRODUCING COUNTRIES
Diamond forms in volcanic magma, when carbon is subjected to very high pressures and heat above 5000 degrees. Since it consists only of carbon, it is said to be an allotrope of graphite, which is the natural presentation of carbon at ordinary pressure and temperature. The main diamond deposits are located in African countries located in the southern hemisphere, as well as in Brazil, Russia, China, India and Canada. Australia, Botswana, Russia, Congo and South Africa contain the largest mines exploited today.
The value of a diamond is essentially based on four criteria:
The color, from white to pale yellow, is evaluated by a letter from D to Z. The D, like "diamond" (diamond in English) designates a perfectly colorless gem. It is better to choose a stone classified between D and I.
The colour " D is therefore the best grade possible for a diamond: it will be totally colorless . The further down the alphabet (the color scale), the more pronounced the diamond will be. The colour " Z " East lowest grade and such a diamond will have a yellow tint. NZ area diamonds are not made to be sold as gemstones.
Canary yellow diamonds are called Fancy and are not diamonds in the NZ zone.
For colored diamonds the most intense color will be the rare and therefore more expensive.
The colors from the most popular to the rarest in order: black, champagne, yellow, pale pink, orange, blue, green, purple, the rarest is red.
The greatest purity corresponds to the absence of discernible irregularity at x10 magnification. Any impurities present in a diamond can take the form of tiny inclusions or microscopic fluff. A classification is established with the letters FL (absence of irregularity under the microscope x10), IF, VVS1, VVS2, VS1, VS2, SI1, SI2, SI3, P1, P2, P3 (numerous inclusions visible to the naked eye and affecting shine).
It is measured in carats, knowing that a carat is worth 0.2 grams, and that the carats used for precious stones have nothing to do with those concerning metal alloys. A carat can be divided into 100 points, so we can speak of a 20 point diamond equivalent to 0.20 carat.
The Size (Cut)
It obeys very precise rules to reveal all the brilliance of the gem. The upper flat part is called the table, the other small surfaces are the facets and their angles are scientifically calculated to play in the most beautiful way with the light (reflection and dispersion).
MAINTAINING YOUR DIAMOND
Careful cleaning with water and dishwashing liquid, followed by rinsing with hot water, is generally enough to maintain your gemstone. If dirt has slipped under the set stone, you can boil it in water, with a drop of dishwashing liquid and a few more of bleach. The diamond fears shocks: its hardness means that it is difficult to scratch, but it is however not unbreakable.
HISTORY AND LEGENDS AROUND DIAMOND
The word diamond comes from the Latin "adamas", designating the magnet or any hard metal. The meaning comes from the privative “a” and from “domare”, to tame. The diamond, indomitable, inflexible, is eternal… If we take care of it! The first diamonds were harvested from Indian rivers three thousand years ago. It is cited in Buddhist, Hindu, Jainist and Tibetan religious texts. The pharaohs wore it as a symbol of the sun in the middle of the ankh, the cross of life. It is also the Egyptians who are at the origin of the engagement ring worn on the 3rd finger, connected to the “vein of the heart”. The Dravidians, non-Aryan or Himalayan peoples of India, used the carob seed as a standard to measure the mass of diamonds, and it is this unit of weight that the carat still represents today (from the Greek keration, carob tree). . Some exceptional diamonds are known: thus, the Regent, which weighs 27.4 grams and is kept in the Louvre, is the purest diamond. The Cullinan, in the Tower of London, is the biggest in the world: it weighed more than 620 grams before the size. In 2014, astronomers discovered a star, a white dwarf, essentially made of crystallized carbon… A diamond star, in short! Located in the constellation of Centaurus, 50 light years from Earth, it measures 4022 km in diameter and is perhaps the largest diamond in the entire galaxy!
VIRTUES AND BENEFITS OF DIAMOND
The diamond is obviously a great symbol of purity. It has the reputation of being very powerful, which implies that whoever wears it or uses it in lithotherapy must himself be pure and irreproachable, otherwise the forces present will turn against him. Diamond is an energy purifier and amplifier. It would be protective against harmful energies and anxieties that hinder action and clarity of thought. The blue diamond, placed on the skin at the level of a diseased organ, would accelerate its healing.
DIAMOND ASTROLOGICAL CORRESPONDENCES
The diamond is associated with Aries, a sign full of youth, impulsiveness and energy. It would promote love and understanding, and would also act on the signs of Leo and Taurus. It is a symbol of eternal love. In Chinese astrology, it is linked to the sign of the pig. This sign is reputed to be diplomatic, delicate and enjoying luxury.
Diamond is the gemstone associated with the birth month of April. Diamond wedding anniversary celebrates 60 years of marriage.
The Science of Diamond
One of the greatest geological marvels is, without any shadow of doubt, the formation and consequential exquisite aura associated with diamonds.
These are composed of carbon atoms surrounded by four adjacent carbon atoms arranged in a tetrahedral coordination, and for them to come to existence it's necessary that the most specific and unique conditions are occurring – an extremely high pressure of fifty thousand times the one present at the Earth's surface, and a relatively low temperature that is almost impossible to match such high pressure levels.
Out of the whole worldwide extraction and synthesization of diamonds, only 20% is then used in jewelry, for its physical properties are of extreme importance for industrial purposes.
Diamonds have an isometric hexoctahedral crystal system and a Mohs hardness of 10, making them the hardest minerals on Earth.
Diamonds occur in a variety of colors — steel gray, white, blue, yellow, orange, red, green, pink to purple, brown, and black, virtually in every color of the rainbow.
Colored diamonds contain interstitial impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, whilst pure diamonds are perfectly transparent and colorless.
Diamond throughout History
Billions of years ago, long before dinosaurs ruled our planet, diamonds were formed at the harshest possible conditions, bringing their beauty and outstanding fascination out of ancient times and straight into present and the future.
Surviving a glorious journey in order to get to our hands, diamonds are some of the clearest examples of Earth's destructive and constructive powers, shaping itself while creating new realities. Since they were first discovered by ancient civilizations, diamonds were considered to be truly magical, for no man's strength, powerful tool or raging fire could affect their integrity a single bit. Considered to be the crystalized form of the tears of the Gods of Olympus, or even small shattered bits of the stars, throughout history they have been associated with good luck, banishment of negative energies and evil, and the greatest source of true wisdom.
Kings of old would never risk going to battle without an amulet made from diamond in order to come back victorious and alive.
Awakening some of the strongest emotions in human beings, diamonds were present in some of the most important tales of old and their mystery will forever resonate in our collective subconscious.
Diamond's healing properties
Known as the king of all gemstones, a diamond is known for unifying the body and the mind, thus eliminating duality and reducing one's sense of separation from the outside world.
Diamonds boost one's intellect and increase the control over one's thoughts, allowing negative thought patterns to simply vanish and supreme mental clarity to be obtained.
Diamonds are seen as the most effective shield against negativity from one's surroundings, while at the same time it strengthens every energy center of the person bearing it.
Ancient Hindu traditions regarded diamonds as a talisman that would ensure good health and proper functioning of the internal organs, for its positive vibrations could even repel nightmares and prevent dreadful depression states.
Ultimately, diamonds are a symbol of clarity and purity, a true talisman to guard its bearer during all the difficult trials in life.
Diamond is the most indestructible of all minerals, however it requires appropriate care in order to make its beauty last forever.
One should make sure to clean a diamond with some regularity, for the oil from one's skin can affect its brightness and look.
Leaving a diamond soaked overnight in a solution of water and ammonia-based household cleaning product and then cleaning it in the morning with a soft brush is enough to make all of its beauty pops.