Gems Dictionary





Tanzanite is a blue to purple variety of the Zoisite species, a mineral from the Silicate family. It is a calcium aluminum silicate with the formula Ca2 Al3 (SiO4)3 OH. Its color is due to the presence of vanadium. Its crystalline system is orthorhombic, its hardness on the Mohs scale is between 6 and 6.5. Tanzanite has a glassy, ​​pearly luster, and its specific gravity is 3.15 to 3.37. Its fluorescence is zero. On the other hand, what makes all its particularity is due to the strength of its pleochroism, this ability to change color depending on the orientation. In the case of tanzanite, it is trichroism: the stone shows blue, red-violet and bronze color depending on the angle of observation.


Tanzanite is appreciated for its blue color with changing reflections. However, it also exists in shades of green, yellow, pink, orange… Some, called fancy tanzanites, are multicolored. The most prestigious and magnificent of the multi-colored tanzanites is the "chameleon" which has incredible reflections. The majority of tanzanites used in jewelry have been heated to intensify their natural color and reduce brown undertones.


Zoisite, to be quite rare, is however present in many countries, such as Austria, Switzerland, Italy, the United States... On the other hand, Tanzanite, apart from anecdotal quantities in Pakistan, has not been discovered only in Tanzania, and this is still the only place in the world where it is exploited. The mines are located in the territory of the Maasai, who own 95% of the trade in this stone. A thousand times rarer than diamonds, and mined under increasingly harsh conditions from deep within the earth where the heat is barely bearable, the price of tanzanite is increasingly high as demand is well above the 'offer. As the area concerned is only 20 km2, the deposits will certainly be exhausted in the fairly near future...


Tiffany & Co was the first company to recognize tanzanite as a valuable gemstone and named it. Since then, it has asserted itself among many jewelers as a gem opening up fabulous creative possibilities. Its size requires a lot of care, because its cleavage (ability of a mineral to fracture along a flat surface, conditioned by the crystalline arrangement) is perfect but in a single direction. Moreover, because of its trichroism, the orientation chosen for the table, flat part of the gem, will determine the dominant color (blue, purple or a little of both).
Tanzanites are mostly very pure, with no visible inclusions, even under a microscope. Popular colors range from ultramarine to sapphire shades. The smaller the gems, the more they pull towards lavender tones.


Tanzanite is extraordinary in that it was discovered very late: it was totally unknown until the 1960s! The legend of their appearance varies according to the versions, but in short, violent storms would have lit bush fires on the hills of Merelani, not far from the famous extinct volcano, Kilimanjaro. The shepherds who had fled far from the disaster ended up returning: it was then that they discovered the blue pebbles, originally grey-brown, transformed by the heat into superb blue gems... You should know that blue covers a sacred character among the Maasai. It is a symbol of happiness and prosperity. The shepherds who found the first tanzanites showed the mysterious stones to an explorer, who sent them for identification to a gemologist. The latter, perplexed, sent them to New York. The GIA, (the Gemmological Institute of America), an authority on mineralogy, had to admit that it was a hitherto unknown variety of zoisite. In reality, it was formed by metamorphism or in pegmatites millions of years ago, and in its raw state, it occurs in veins of gneiss, in the form of a striated prism, with facets.


Despite its recent appearance in the sparkling world of gemstones, lithotherapists have already found many virtues in this shimmeringly colored mineral.
Tanzanite is said to have beneficial effects on the brain and nervous system. It would improve hearing and sight, and would facilitate the work of the kidney. It would soothe abdominal and gastric pains and would be protective of the skin and bones.
Tanzanite would stimulate the imagination and creativity, it would be in this the ally of artists, writers, musicians and other creators. It would increase memory capacities and intellectual curiosity. It would elevate the soul in search of noble aspirations, of ever deeper spiritual research. It would facilitate the proper conduct of meditation.
The "cat's eye" variation of tanzanite would bring intuition and clairvoyance.
All this associates it with the higher chakras, which are located at the level of the throat, the eyes and the top of the head.


Tanzanite is associated with the astrological signs of Aquarius, Gemini, Aries, Pisces and especially Capricorn. It symbolizes unifying forces. Tanzanite is the birthstone for children in December. Like satin, it is the symbol of the 24th wedding anniversary.

The Meaning and History of Tanzanite

Tanzanite is a member of the mineral family zoisite, which has been known about for nearly two centuries. Zoisite occurs in a number of varieties, the most sought after being tanzanite. This mineral family was named zoisite in 1805, some time after the Austrian scientist Baron Siegmund Zois von Edelstein (1747-1819) had identified the mineral in the Saualpe Mountains of Carintha, Austria. Siegmund Zois von Edelstein operated an iron mine in the Karawanken Mountains in Karnten Austria and encountered the mineral on his own property. Centuries later, the discovery of a bright blue transparent variety that we now know as tanzanite, created a lot of excitement in the specialist world.

A prospector named Manuel d'Souza who was looking for sapphire discovered tanzanite in 1967 in northeastern Tanzania. D'Souza was originally from India and had been looking for stones in the wilds of Tanzania. Eventually, some natives took him to an area in the region of the Merelani Hills near Mount Kilimanjaro, around 90 kilometers from his home town of Arusha. There, he found these precious blue stones he thought were sapphire. According to legend, the Masai herders were actually the ones who originally discovered the stone, when a lightning strike set the surrounding grasslands on fire. When they returned to the land with their livestock, the blue stones were all over the ground. D'Souza soon discovered that the blue stones he had found were not sapphire, so he staked a claim with the government and began mining.

With few inclusions, by 1970, the royal blue find was soon the focus of American and European advertising. When word of the new gemstones got out, Henry Platt of Tiffany and Co. named the new gem “tanzanite” and Tiffany's began a marketing campaign to introduce it to the public. Now, tanzanite is the pride of the gem-rich East African country, Tanzania. Soon after word of this new precious stone got out however, a murderous attack put a swift end to exploitation of the mineral. A fake car accident, in which d'Souza died, interrupted any follow up supplies. As a result, supply was unable to keep up with demand during the following two years.
Some say D'Souza's discovery is one of the most exciting in the field of gemstones in nearly a century. Of all the new gemstones that have conquered the hearts of people in the second half of the twentieth century, none has even approximated the success of tanzanite. Within a short period of time it has succeeded in achieving worldwide popularity and major acclaim. The triggering factors for this market success are the virtues incorporated in tanzanite such as the beauty of its color, its rarity and durability, as well as its availability. Though it only rates a 6.5 on the hardness scale, its resistance to scratching and abrasion is relatively good.

Tanzanite has become one of the most popular gems in the market place. In fact, it is now the most popular gemstone after the “big four,” which consists of diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds. At first, the gemstone was only available in smaller sizes, but now much bigger sizes are sold. Today, tanzanite can cost over $2000 per carat in larger sizes at retail stores. Tanzanite is far less expensive than sapphire, for which it often serves as a substitute.

Tanzanite stones are 585 million years old. There are apparently only very rare tanzanite stones that are naturally blue. Given its attractive color, rarity and the publicity, which greeted its discovery, the value of tanzanite is quite high, just a little less than that of the violet-blue sapphires it looks like. But it is rarely seen on the market and is very much a collector's item. Tiffany 's has one of the largest and most beautiful displays of tanzanite in the world. The Smithsonian Institution also has an impressive collection consisting of one faceted stone of 122.7 carats and a rare cat's eye tanzanite of 18.2 carats.
Because tanzanite was only first discovered in 1967, there is not much history, legend, or superstition about the gemstone. In Tanzania, however, women who have just given birth wear blue beads and fabric to bestow a healthy and positive life upon their newborns. This custom has been going on for generations in Tanzania.

Mystical Powers of Tanzanite

*The information provided here is for entertainment and reference purposes only. It is based on centuries of folklore, most of which came the birthstones of your loved ones, or your favorite combination of colors about before the age of modern medicine. It is not meant as actual medical information. For advice about any of the illnesses listed, please visit a qualified physician.
Mentally, there are many ways in which tanzanite can be helpful to one's life. It has the power to transform negative energies into positive ones. It assists in manifesting your own self rather than being influenced by others or trying to conform to the norm
Tanzanite changes colors when it is viewed from different directions. This shifting of colors has been said to facilitate raising consciousness. It aids in realizing your own ideas and transforms destructive urges into constructive ones. The gemstone opens an awareness of the comparison between how one lives and how one could choose to live more consciously. Those who wear it will become aware of their calling. It is a stone for highly developed beings who have not yet recognized their strength and fearfully close their hearts to it. This creates trust and we gradually open ourselves for further possibilities. On the level of sub consciousness, it helps us to better come to terms with ourselves.
Tanzanite dispels lethargy and brings repressed feelings to the surface so that they can be expressed. Tanzanite is a creative stone, bringing us back to our objectives after interruption. It also has the power to dissolve old patterns and creates space for new patterns to be integrated.

Physically, tanzanite is a wonderful tool to encourage recovery from severe illness or stress. It strengthens the immune system, regenerates cells, and treats the heart, spleen, pancreas, lungs, head, throat, and chest. The stone is also a great detoxifier. It also has the ability to neutralize over acidification and reduce inflammation. Tanzanite also stimulates fertility and heals diseases of the ovaries and testicles. It has been said that it is extremely beneficial to wear or place the tanzanite on the body in direct contact with the skin, where appropriate. It is recommended to wear the tanzanite for long periods of time, as it is a slow acting stone.

Physical Properties and Science of Tanzanite

Tanzanite rates at 6.5 on the hardness scale and has vitreous shine. It is a relatively soft and brittle stone, nowhere near as hard as a sapphire gold has diamond , but given the proper care it can last a long time.
The typical color of tanzanite is blue with a violet tinge. In some lighter colored stones, the color is described as lavender. The color of the tanzanite is the most important factor in determining its price. For example, a tanzanite of the perfect blue brilliant hue in 5, 10 or 20 carats is of greater value than a paler, darker, or duller stone of twice the size and weight.
In nature, tanzanite only sometimes occurs as a blue stone, but more often is golden to brown in color. After some time, it was discovered that by heating the brown or golden variety of the stone to 600 degrees Celsius and gradually cooling it, the color could be permanently changed to the violet-blue color. Without heating, tanzanite would be unmarketable.
Tanzanite is pleochroic, meaning the purple, gray, blue and violet tones within the stone vary depending on the angle the stone is viewed from. There might also be a slight color change in incandescent light, when stones may appear to be more violet. Tanzanite's color is caused by the amount of chrome present in the stone.
Tanzanite's rich, royal velvety blue resembles the precious Kashmir sapphire. Only a hint of violet and a slightly less hard and lustreous appearance than sapphire, tip off experts that the stone is something else. While at one point in time, tanzanite was used as a less expensive alternative to sapphire; it is now appreciated far more for itself and far less as a sapphire substitute. Tanzanite is much softer and fragile than sapphire and can occasionally shatter. It is important therefore, if you are having your tanzanite repaired or cleaned, that you make it clear that it is a tanzanite stone so extra care may be taken.
Tanzanite is often round or oval cut. It is a stone that normally has few inclusions, but as in all gem stone families, large, clear, nearly flawless tanzanites are rare. The larger the stone, the greater the chance of flaws occurring.
Being little known and of very recent history, this stone has neither been imitated nor produced synthetically. Tanzanite's fire factor, especially that of the splendid blue color, is comparatively high, for this reason the tanzanite alone of all the zoisite family can be classified with any other splendid gem. Tanzanite is a rare gem likely to gain in value as a collector's item.
Tanzanite occurs in schists and gneisses as well as in metasomatic rocks together with garnet , vesuvianite and actinolite. It is also occasionally found in hydrothermal veins. Tanzanite is found in very limited quantities, almost exclusively in the northern part of Tanzania, near the Merelani hills, where the chief deposit is almost exhausted by now. However small amounts of tanzanite has also been found in Sweden, New Hampshire, Pakistan, South Africa, Kenya, Norway, Austria, and Italy.

Caring for your Tanzanite Jewelry

Care must be taken when setting or handling a tanzanite. The stone is soft and brittle so it can crack if one is not careful. It is also important to avoid exposure to sudden temperature changes or heat. Tanzanite is also sensitive to pressure and has a low resistance to ultrasound so it should never be cleaned with the ultrasonic cleaners commonly used by jewelers. It can suffer irreparable damage. In general, tanzanite should be worn with care.

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rutilated quartz

rutilated quartz

Rutilated quartz is a remarkable rock crystal, by the rutile needles it contains. It can also be mentioned in lithotherapy, because this stone has many virtues, in many areas. It can provide help, both physically and morally.


Rutilated quartz stone, with a hardness of 7 and a specific gravity of 2.65 and belonging to the rhombohedral crystal system, is a transparent or rock crystal, having golden rutile needles inside. Based on titanium oxide, rutile is a mineral. Rare, red or black in color, rutile is included in transparent quartz during the crystallization phase. It then appears, in the form of golden threads or needles, entangled “Opus incertum”. The crystal thus takes on shimmering reflections under the sun, and we speak of golden rutilated quartz. These needles are sometimes called "Hair of Venus", but this stone also has other names: Thetis stone, hair stone or sagenetic quartz. It is possible for other mineral inclusions to occur. Thus, the variety which is called “Arrows of Love” quartz has, instead of rutile needles, dark green or black crystals of tourmaline. They are mainly found in Madagascar, Brazil and India.


Symbolically, the vibrations of this quartz open the meditation space and the mind to a higher spiritual dimension. If we talk about Karma and chakras, rutilated quartz can be applied on all chakras, basically the coronal, the solar plexus and the third eye. It thus opens the spirit, to the energetic forces, which favors the projection in its karma. It is a stone that can be described as inner progress, which destroys obstacles and negative energies, which hinder intellectual development. She is quite interesting, to work on her past lives. The elixir of rutile quartz notably calms heartburn and is useful against angina, asthma and chronic bronchitis. Indeed, it has a beneficial action on the respiratory tract and the lungs that it drains. It is also useful in preventing colds and colds. It is also sold for its actions on obesity, ear infections and in cases of premature ejaculation. It is credited as a virtue, to develop sexual potency. All of the above shows physical aids, but it also brings mental aids. It helps for example to quit smoking, because it promotes personal development. It facilitates the acceptance of errors and thus, it also favors the creation of new attitudes.

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Onyx is silicon dioxide with the chemical formula SiO2. Like agate, it is a special kind of chalcedony, which is itself a cryptocrystalline variety of quartz. The crystal system of onyx is trigonal; its hardness is 7 on the Mohs scale and its density is between 2.65 and 2.66. It has a conchoidal fracture and its luster is vitreous. Onyx is often striped black and white, but also sometimes only black: in jewelry, in this case, it can also be a chalcedony tinted black according to a process accepted because practiced since very remote times. In this case, it is opaque while the natural black onyx is translucent.


Onyx has a texture in parallel zones, generally black and white (ribboned onyx), or brown and white: in this case it is called sardoine or sardonyx. The bands of onyx are generally circular, and if they are not very marked around a dark core, it is said to be "eye". If the bands are polygonal rather than circular, it is said to be "with fortifications". Please note, "onyx marble" and "onyx alabaster" are other stones only called so because of their texture.


Onyx forms at low temperatures in acidic or basic volcanic rocks, in fissures of igneous and metamorphic rocks, in hydrothermal veins, and rarely in sedimentary zones. Sometimes the erosion of these veins has released the onyx which is found in the form of pebbles polished by the water.
The main onyx deposits are found in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, in Chihuahua in Mexico, in Colorado and Utah in the United States, as well as in India, Uruguay and Madagascar.


The choice of an onyx piece of jewelry depends above all on personal taste, the color effect you are looking for and the quality of the polishing. The skill of the lapidary in taking advantage of the layout of the white and black areas counts for a lot in the aesthetics of the gem.
Onyx can be cut in briolette, in drop, in pearl, in sphere (for signet rings, cufflinks, pendants…), in egg, or in any shape of animal or decorative object ( candlestick, bookend, vase, cutlery handles…). Of course there is also cameo (relief drawing) or intaglio (intaglio) carving which has been practiced for millennia.


The word “onyx” comes from the Greek, it means “nail”: in antiquity this term initially designated all the chalcedonies, some of which had the color of the nail. Later, the designation was restricted to the darkest chalcedony.
In Rome, onyx was very popular for making cameos and seals, because it had the property of not sticking to wax.
Greek mythology has a legend about onyx: one day when the beautiful Aphrodite was fast asleep by a river, Cupid came to cut her nails with the iron of one of his arrows. The clippings fell on the sand of the bank, and were transformed into onyx stones by the Fates.
As often, in the Middle Ages, traditional beliefs were linked to the appearance and color of things, onyx and its dark shine was linked to evil spells, hatred and anger, in short to everything that could be influenced by the forces of evil...
However, in the Bible, onyx is mentioned when the Lord speaks to Moses and gives him precise instructions down to the smallest detail to have him erect a sanctuary and prepare the vestments and insignia of the priests. It is written: “Then you shall make a breastplate of Judgment…; there will be four rows of stones […] and the fourth row: chrysolite, beryl and onyx. »


Contrary to what we know of medieval beliefs, lithotherapists attribute great and completely positive qualities to onyx. It would be in a way the stone of stability and reinforcement. This stone would be linked to the root chakra, the one that is at the base of the spine and contains the "kundalini", vital energy rolled up there, three and a half times on itself like a snake. Onyx is said to help build self-esteem, confidence and self-control. It would stabilize people with an inconstant character and give strength to face the upheavals of life. Catalyst for a successful meditation, it would help to find what one seeks there, therefore to better see the true nature of things.
Another important quality, onyx would make it possible to purify karma, that is to say to overcome the consequences of acts or traumas dating from past lives.
From a physical point of view, onyx would have protective virtues for the teeth and the mouth, it would facilitate speech if it is too fast or poorly controlled and would fix vocal problems. In addition, it would increase resistance to cold, sharpen the functioning of the five senses and in particular, would act on ear problems (balance, inner ear, tinnitus).


Black onyx is said to be linked to the signs of Leo, Capricorn and Sagittarius, while striped onyx is said to be associated with Virgo, Scorpio and Libra. Its element is fire and its planets, depending on the case, would be Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Onyx weddings correspond to the 89th wedding anniversary!

The Science of Onyx

In its natural form, onyx is a slightly transparent black stone composed of silicon dioxide, but it can be found in many other colors once dyed for commercial or decorative purposes.
The primary geographical source of onyx is located in South America and India.
It has a trigonal conchoidal crystal system and a Mohs hardness of 6.5-7.

Onyx throughout History

Its name comes from the Greek word onux , which means “fingernail” given its subtle transparency. For the ancient Chinese civilization and many cultures during the Middle Ages, onyx was seen as a bringer of bad luck, awakener of doubts and dreadful dreams and terrifying madness.
But in India, onyx is a symbol of calmness and strong concentration levels, and as a pacifier of the restless loving emotions. Indians believe that onyx contains a trapped demon inside of it and, therefore, it effectively repels against evil spirits and the evil eye.

In Ancient Rome, onyx was an inspiring stone for craftsman that produced some of the most beautiful and luxurious cameos and furniture ornaments the world has ever seen.
Onyx's healing properties

This stone is associated with the strong gravitational force of our planet and it's thought of as a mineral with the power to ground its bearer and help it connect with the energies of the environment, while at the same time it filters out the negativity in order to effectively open a door between the individual and the higher powers.

Onyx is a stone of spokesman and lovers, for it can bring the eloquence needed to move a nation or to make a loved one fall under one's sincere verbal spell of truth.
Because it can align the energy between one's thoughts and one's words, onyx enhances communication skills and can both bring everlasting happiness to a married couple, or help one gather the facts and strength necessary to bring a bad relationship to an end.

Onyx is connected with transformation from one's very soul and like few other minerals it can help those struggling with overcoming negative and destructive habits, allowing internal peace to arise in the most troubled of minds.
Physically, onyx boosts the body's energy levels and lowers the impact of the stress of the day-to-day life.

Onyx care

In order to properly clean an onyx stone, simply rinse it in lukewarm and plain water and rub it lightly with a very soft polishing cloth. One can also put a drop of olive oil directly on the stone and rub it to recover the onyx's natural shininess.

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Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli


Lapis lazuli is the pretty name given to a blue rock mainly composed of lazurite. This rock belongs to the family of Silicates and its formula is: (Na, Ca)8[(AlSiO4)6(SO4, S, Cl)2], that is to say that it is composed of sodium, d aluminum, silicon, oxygen and sulfur. Other minerals present in lapis lazuli are calcite, pyrite and sodalite. The density of lazurite is 2.7-3, its hardness 5-5.5 on the Mohs scale. It has a cubic crystal system. It is an opaque, dark blue to blue-green mineral with a greasy, matte luster. It is rarely found as large dodecahedral crystals, but rather as finely grained aggregates. Under ultraviolet light a fluorescence appears, white to coppery orange.


Lapis lazuli is blue to blue-indigo, even purple, passing through blue-green. It is the sulfur that gives it this beautiful azure color, and the different shades then depend on the quantity of other minerals associated with the majority lazurite. Often, the gem is dotted with small spots or white streaks due to the presence of calcite, or golden, if it is rather pyrite.


The main deposit of lapis lazuli is located at an altitude of 2500 meters, in a remote and difficult to access region of Afghanistan, in the province of Badakhshan. It takes four days to reach the Sar-e-Sang mine from Kabul as the journey is rugged. The climatic conditions are also so difficult that the deposit is only exploited four months a year. There are the most beautiful lapis lazuli. Another historic mine is in Chile, in Flor de los Andes, 3500 meters above sea level. It was already known at the time of the Chavin civilization, this pre-Columbian culture born at least a thousand years before our era and which developed in present-day Peru.
Other less productive deposits are found in Angola, Burma, Pakistan, and North America.


The more intense the color of a lapis lazuli, the greater its value. There must be as few traces of calcite as possible (white spots): specimens from Russia often contain a lot. On the other hand, gems with pyrite encrustations are very popular for the magnificent harmony of blue and gold. However, not too much is needed, at the risk of having a stone of lesser value.


The name of lapis lazuli is composed of the word "lapis", which means stone in Latin, and "lazuli", the origin of which is a Persian word, "lâdjevard", which gave "lazul" in Arabic, obviously an ancestor of word "azure".
In Mesopotamia, there was already an important commercial network around lapis lazuli, which was an important issue during the wars between the Sumerian city-states. The famous city of Our, flourishing in the 4th millennium, produced splendid objects carved in lapis lazuli, such as the statuettes of animals found in the royal cemetery by archaeologists. In the Syrian palace of Ebla, 23 kilos of raw lapis were found!
In Egypt it was a sacred stone that evoked the starry sky. It represented the eyes of the gods, and was used by healing priests to cure certain diseases such as apoplexy. It adorned funerary masks.
An English officer, John Wood, recounts his visit to the mines of Badackchan in 1837. He explains that tamarisk wood was burned in large flames against the limestone walls, before spraying them with cold water: the difference in temperature made burst the rock and allowed the extraction of lapis lazuli.
Lapis lazuli was introduced to Europe in the 5th century AD. It was then called "ultramarinum", because it came from far beyond the seas... This is how the ultramarine blue pigment is called, extracted from lapis lazuli and used in France from the 12th century, notably by the illuminating monks of the abbeys. It was used by Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.


In ancient Egypt, people already believed in the healing properties of lapis lazuli. The Romans saw it as a powerful aphrodisiac. Then in the Middle Ages it was used to compose elixirs fortifying the mind and body.
Today in gemmotherapy, lapis lazuli is considered effective against disorders of the immune system and endocrine glands. It is said to cure the thyroid, skin problems like herpes and eczema, allergies, dandruff and sore throats, as well as migraines and earaches. It would have a soothing effect on nervous or depressed people. Lapis lazuli is said to help introverts gain confidence and get out of themselves. It would promote communication and liberate expression. The ideal place to apply the gem for best effectiveness would be just above the diaphragm. The elixir of lapis lazuli would make it possible to better remember one's dreams to understand their meaning.


The astrological signs associated with lapis lazuli are Sagittarius, Pisces and Aquarius. It corresponds to Wednesday and the planets Mercury and Jupiter. In Chinese astrology, it is the stone of the Ox sign.

Lapis lazuli wedding:

Lapis lazuli is traditionally attached to the fifty-sixth wedding anniversary.

The Science of Lapis Lazuli

This soul-stimulating blue rock mainly composed of pyrite, lazurite and calcite takes its colors from sulfur and comes mostly from Afghanistan's Hindu Kush Mountains and Chile.
Even though it's made up of several components and, therefore, is not considered a mineral, its adoration and respect was never put at stake not even a single bit, for its longevity and tonality are part of a league of its own.

Always present in lapis lazuli are small pyrite crystals that give it a gorgeous brassy yellow tonality. It has an isometric hextetrahedral crystal system and a Mohs hardness of 5.5.

Lapis Lazuli throughout History

Only since the 10 th century has this beautiful rock been documented by a geographer that visited the Sar-e-Sang mines in Afghanistan, where lapis lazuli can only be mined for six months due to the extreme of the place where it's located.

For more than 6000 years lapis lazuli has been mined on one of the most inaccessible and dangerous places on Earth, with an altitude of 6Km and a tortuous journey ahead of anyone willing to travel to its source.

Lapis lazuli played a crucial role in Sumerian's history, being strongly connected with pure wealth and splendor, bringing to humans some of the attributes that belonged only to gods and, therefore, its use was forbidden to the people and exclusive to the royalty.
The ancient Egyptian civilization and several South-American civilizations attributed live-giving and evil-banishing powers to lapis lazuli.

Lapis Lazuli's healing properties

This royal stone is known for bringing its bearer supreme awareness and increasing the strength of one's intuitive powers, as it facilitates spiritual evolution and brings one to its very own path of enlightenment.
Few stones are connected to the cleansing of both the mind and the soul as lapis lazuli. By wearing this blue stone, one's serenity increases to blissful levels and so does one's sense of acceptance and self-confidence.

Those seeking supreme mental clarity and a deeper meditation state can find in lapis lazuli the mind-expanding key to fully open one's reality tunnel and see through one's past lives or perceive reality through another enlightening point of view.
Regarding the physical realm, lapis lazuli has been accounted for successfully treating insomnia and chronic depression.

Lapis Lazuli care

This stone should be properly taken care of, given its relatively soft nature. Lapis lazuli can be cleaned with an ultrasonic jewelry cleaner (for a short period of time), or washed with lukewarm and soapy water.

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Belonging to the quartz family, citrine is a stone that is rarely found in its natural state. Its deposits, which are frequently those of amethysts, are mainly located in the United States, Spain, Uruguay and Madagascar. However, Brazil is the main producer of citrine with its significant deposits in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. Moreover, the most beautiful stones come from this country, to mention only the famous faceted citrine of more than 2,000 carats which is exhibited in Washington, at the Smithsonian Institute.


The name of citrine comes from the Latin word "citrus", meaning "lemon" in French, in reference to its color. This stone was already known in Ancient Greece. The Romans used it to make cabochons and intaglios. The men of antiquity used it, for their part, as precious stones endowed with power. It would seem that she had the gift of preserving them from the bites of poisonous snakes, the evil eye and negative thoughts. In the 1800s, citrine was used, among other things, as decoration on combs and tiaras.


A legend tells that once, in a region located on the common borders of Brazil and Bolivia, a sorcerer had imprisoned the mantle of the dawn of purple color in a crystal. Exacerbated, the sun had then hidden it in the depths of the Earth, thus giving its color to the stone. Several years later, a conquistador had received a sample of this stone from his wife named Anahi. This is a princess from the Ayoeros tribe, who is none other than one of the wizard's descendants. She was sacrificed by her people to avoid seeing her leave with her husband for Spain. As she was dying in her husband's arms, she placed the stone in his hands to show him her eternal love. The miners who worked in the Anahi mine in the 19th century said that sometimes they still heard the cries of the conquistador, crying for his dear and tender.


Citrine is both a fine, transparent and solid stone, with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. She is able to scratch glass. Its crystalline system is trigonal and its pleochroism weak. It is associated with zero fluorescence and conchoidal breakage. Chemically speaking, citrine is written under the formula SiO2. Its boiling point is 2230°C while its specific gravity is between 2.63 and 2.65. Unless dissolved in a concentrated solution of soda or in hydrofluoric acid, this mineral is associated with a very stable solubility.


Citrine owes its citrus color mainly to the tiny amounts of iron hydroxides it contains. It can sometimes be confused with yellow topaz because of their nearly identical hues. With a vitreous luster, it has several varieties depending on its tones, ranging from lemon yellow to Madeira red, passing through golden yellow, brownish orange, golden brown and tangerine orange. The green tips in the heart of the lemon yellow citrine allow to recognize this variety. For its part, the yellow-gold citrine shines like the eponymous precious metal. Madeira citrine is recognizable, for its part, by its orange-red tones, thus recalling the color of the famous Madeira wine. Orange and yellow hues combine in mandarin citrine. As for the multicolored citrine, it presents a gradient from golden yellow to colorless.


In order to choose the right citrine, it is important to consider a few criteria. As far as color is concerned, the most popular remains Madeira citrine. This is due to the fact that it is particularly bright. Nevertheless, the other color varieties have something to appeal to everyone. Purity is another essential point in the choice of this gem. The size of the citrine also matters in its choice since it allows it to adopt all kinds of shapes, according to the needs and tastes of each one.


In order to keep all the brilliance of a citrine, it is better to avoid any contact with a source of excessive heat. It should also not be exposed to too intense a light. It should be noted that lime deposits and chemicals of all kinds can also affect its beauty and shine. If it is necessary to wash the citrine with water and dishwashing liquid, it is recommended to rinse it afterwards with alcohol.


Thanks to its positive energies and warm color, citrine can soothe and invigorate the body and mind. It helps to find a certain inner serenity, to promote concentration, to stimulate intelligence and to stimulate good humor and creativity. It also has the power to ward off negative influences, illness, nervousness, fatigue, anxiety and stress. It can even induce beneficial financial changes and bring prosperity.


Citrine has the gift of promoting optimism, well-being and spiritual peace for Leos, Sagittarius, Pisces and Gemini. Taurus can also enjoy the benefits of dark citrines. Regarding the Chinese zodiac sign, citrine is beneficial for Roosters, bringing them calm and frankness. They thus become less pretentious and less arrogant.


Citrine can be given as a gift on the occasion of the 13th wedding anniversary. It is also a lucky stone for those born in November.

The Science of Citrine

With a vividly bright and colorful appeal, citrine is the name given to any quartz crystal that has a natural orange or yellow tonality, and is the most valuable of all quartz gems. Interestingly, most of the citrine stones that are mined were actually amethysts that due to the heat from surrounding magmatic energies made its color change.

The main locations where citrine is mined are all near the equator, and this gemstone has a trigonal trapezohedral crystal system and a Mohs hardness of 7.

Citrine throughout History

For thousands of years citrine was adored for its rarity, being one of the main gemstones from which the Romans crafted their beautiful and exquisite jewelry. However, the stone's rarity has changed nowadays and its use no longer is related to sheer opulence and luxury, but that didn't change its charm and amazing properties not even a bit, and it will forever be associated with its historic reputation of being the “success stone” that sprouted myths about its wealth-boosting abilities and being beloved by Celts and Scots that worshiped this gemstone for its protective qualities against evil thoughts and diseases.

Citrine's healing properties

Few gemstones represent the power of the Sun as strongly as citrine with its warming and reinvigorating, cleansing and renewing energy. It's thought to serve as a link between lower and higher forms of consciousness and, therefore, balancing our vital energies. Due to its enlightening qualities, citrine helps the individual find himself and channel the true will to struggle for the accomplishment of all personal goals.
Citrine strongly encourages creative thinking and reinforces the belief in one's intuition, boosting self-confidence without ever leading to narcissism.
Just like the Sun itself, this gemstone stimulates healing throughout the whole body, playing a crucial role in the regeneration of tissues and cell growth. It's an amazing antioxidant that reverses the negative effect of radiation and lowers the impact of allergies.

Citrine is cherished by those suffering from digestive, circulatory or urinary problems, as well as individuals with diseases that affect any of the internal organs.

citrine care

Given the right care, citrine can last forever. Even though it's solid enough to resist every day's use, it should be protected from any situation where it could be severely hit or scratched. It should also be shielded from prolonged exposure to the Sun, or its color might undergo a severe tonality change. After cleaning it with lukewarm water, make sure to properly rinse and dry it.

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The term opal designates a family of minerals composed of silica and water with inclusions of various elements. Its chemical formula is SiO2, nH2O, it is hydrated silicon dioxide. The proportion of water varies from 1 to 27%. There is no crystal system. The density of opals ranges from 1.98 to 2.50, their hardness on the Mohs scale is 5.5 to 6.5. Under ultraviolet rays, opals have a white, yellow, greenish-yellow or green luminescence.


There are several varieties of opals. Noble opals, highly sought after in jewelry, exhibit a phenomenon of iridescence, that is to say they show a play of multicolored flashes of light. They are produced by the diffraction of light on silica nanospherules of homogeneous size and arrangement. Common opals, on the other hand, have heterogeneous or irregular nanospherules, and therefore have a single color.

Here are some types of opals:
- Fire opal, hyacinth red to fire red, transparent to translucent;
- Milky white opal, milky white to yellow-white or blue-white, translucent with a vitreous to matte luster; some contain veinlets and masses of manganese oxide, these are dendritic opals.
- Woody opal consists of opalized trunks or branches. The wood rings are clearly visible. This opal is fragile.
- The hydrophane (or opal matrix) is white, matte and sticks to the tongue. Rather opaque, it has the property of changing appearance if immersed in water. It then becomes more transparent and can become iridescent.
- Hyalite has a high transparency, it is colorless with slight blue or green nuances.
- Jelly opal is gray-blue with some play of light
- Harlequin opal has beautiful iridescent glitter in all colors, it is highly prized.


Opal forms when water leaches silica and deposits it on layers of sandy clay during a period of drought. It is sometimes found instead of shells or bones. The location of the gems in the mine is therefore unpredictable, they must be searched for by hand or with small machines to avoid the risk of breaking them.
In the past, opals came from Egypt, India or Saudi Arabia. Nowadays, it is Australia which produces 90% of the opals sold in the world, precious gems and of very high quality. These deposits were discovered by German geologist Johannes Menge in 1849. One of them, Lightning Ridge, revealed opalized dinosaur skeletons.
Other opal producing countries are Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Russia and the United States.


There are so many kinds of opals, so many different colors that the first criterion of choice obviously remains the tastes of each one. However, the value of an opal depends on several criteria:
- the color of iridescence: the play of red light is the most sought after, followed by violet, pink and turquoise, which are very rare, and finally blue and green, which are more common.
- the intensity of the iridescence: in general an opal with a less prestigious color than others but with very bright and intense iridescences will have a higher price than a more sought-after color but with duller sparkles.
- transparency is also an important evaluation criterion, depending on the variety of opals.
- the pattern: for example, Yowah opals have mosaics of extraordinary colors, which make the stone look like stained glass or cloisonné enamels.


The wide variety of opals gives free rein to the creativity of jewelers. We see this stone associated with gold, silver and the prestigious platinum.


The word “opal” would come from the Sanskrit Upala, via the Greek “opallios” which would designate color changes.
Some Aboriginal groups in Australia have a very poetic legend in their mythology: the creator god once descended on Earth by sliding on a rainbow. No sooner had he set foot on the ground than all the stones would have started to sparkle, the same colors as the rainbow...
For Pliny the Elder, the opal was marvelous because it combined the colors and qualities of all the other precious stones.
It is said that Marc Antony dreamed of acquiring the magnificent blue opal from a senator called Nonius, with the aim of offering it to the beautiful Cleopatra. But the senator in question, rather than give up his stone, preferred to choose exile...
In India the opal is the symbol of the Trinity (Trimûrti) formed by the creator god Brahma, the preserver Vishnu and the destroyer Shiva.
It has long been considered a lucky charm and present in the treasures of European courts. This fine reputation was once shattered by the influence of a 19th century novel written by the Scotsman Walter Scott, in which a princess is accused of being demonic. She wears an opal on her forehead and, in contact with holy water, the gem loses all its colors and the princess is seized with pain… before disappearing, leaving behind only a handful of ashes.


The Greeks considered the opal to bring hope and a symbol of purity. It had the reputation of increasing clairvoyance, making meditation and reflection easier, improving intuition.
Today in lithotherapy, we continue to attribute these virtues to opal. It calms and soothes, promotes love and tenderness, improves the sentimental life of Gemini and Aquarius. It opens the mind to spiritual life and restores vitality to tired people.


Opal is the birthstone of people born in October. It is associated with several astrological signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Pisces, Cancer, Virgo... in Chinese astrology, it is the stone of the Serpent: it has mysterious depths, gives endurance and courage, and makes... invisible .

wedding anniversaries

Opal weddings designate the 21st wedding anniversary.

The Science of Opal

Opal's internal structure makes it diffract light; depending on the conditions in which it formed it can take on many colors. Opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the reds against black are the most rare, whereas white and greens are the most common. It varies in optical density from opaque to semi-transparent. For gemstone use, its natural color is often enhanced by placing thin layers of opal on a darker underlying stone, like basalt.

Opal throughout History

In the Middle Ages, opal was considered a stone that could provide great luck because it was believed to possess all the virtues of each gemstone whose color was represented in the color spectrum of the opal. It was also said to confer the power of invisibility if wrapped in a fresh bay leaf and held in the hand. Following the publication of Sir Walter Scott's Anne of Geierstein in 1829, however, opal acquired a less auspicious reputation. In Scott's novel, the Baroness of Arnheim wears an opal talisman with supernatural powers. When a drop of holy water falls on the talisman, the opal turns into a colorless stone and the Baroness dies soon thereafter. Due to the popularity of Scott's novel, people began to associate opals with bad luck and death.

Within a year of the publishing of Scott's novel in April 1829, the sale of opals in Europe dropped by 50%, and remained low for the next twenty years or so.

Opal's healing properties

Pink opal heals from cardiac disorders


Opal is really sensitive to shocks . You shoud not put perfume , soap or other cleaning products on it.

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pink quartz

pink quartz


Rose quartz is a particular variety of quartz, whose formula is SiO2. Like him, it is part of the large family of oxides. It is a silicate colored by elements such as manganese, aluminum, titanium or phosphorus when it is rather transparent, as well as microscopic inclusions of dumortierite when it is rather cloudy.
Its crystal system is trigonal, its fracture conchoidal. It has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale and its specific gravity is 2.65. Transparent to opaque, it has a vitreous, white luster, its pleochroism is weak and it does not fluoresce under ultraviolet light.


Rose quartz is rarely transparent. Most often, it is inhabited by inclusions which give it a slightly veiled, translucent appearance. Its color varies according to the proportion of the elements that color it, and ranges from pale pink to peach color. Some specimens, especially from Madagascar, when cut into cabochons reveal a strange white reflection in the shape of an asterisk, it is starry pink quartz.


This mineral is mainly formed in igneous rocks, such as pegmatites, and sometimes in hydrothermal vents. It appears as large crystals or translucent microcrystals. Quartz is very common on the planet, it is one of the components of granite and we can see with the naked eye or with a magnifying glass its abundance in the sand of the beaches. It would represent 12% of the mass of the lithosphere (the earth's crust and the upper part of the mantle). The main deposits of rose quartz are located in Brazil and Madagascar. They are also found in the United States and Tanzania.


It is necessary to check that the stone does not have cracks in which the pink would be darker: this would be a sign that the stone has been artificially tinted. The intensity of the color catches the eye, but beware of excessive inclusions which weaken the stone. The finest rose quartz has a soft, even color.


Among the Greeks, pink quartz was the symbol of Initiation. For the Muslims, it is that of contemplation and for the Indians, it would be the stone of the maternal deity. In the ancient Middle East, it was dedicated to Astarte, goddess of love and war. In Egypt, at the time of the pharaohs, it was believed capable of slowing down the aging of the skin and it was used in the composition of beauty masks. Greek mythology tells that Aphrodite, rushing into the forest to save her beautiful Adonis attacked by a boar, scratched herself in the brambles. His blood mingled with that which oozed from Adonis' wounds. The drops of their mixed bloods turned into stones of rose quartz… Another version of the appearance on Earth of rose quartz cites the intervention of Eros, god of love, who would have given it to men in the hope to spread love and peace… The Romans carved seals in this rock.
A rose quartz skull was discovered on the border between Guatemala and Honduras. Like several other skulls carved in stone and discovered in South America and Central America, it would be linked to the legend of the 13 skulls. A Mayan prophecy says that thirteen crystal skulls, transmitted by celestial creatures to the Atlanteans, must one day all be reunited so that great secrets can be revealed to men... For the moment, they are distributed in different museums around the world…


The padded softness of pink quartz evokes peace, calm and tenderness... This is probably why this stone is known to be a comforter, it is supposed to heal both physical and emotional wounds. His contact reassures, reinforces self-confidence and the ability to accept oneself as one is. Linked to the heart chakra, this energy node of Indian medicine, rose quartz would facilitate breathing and strengthen feelings of love. It would help regulate endocrine disorders. It would have a moderating action on blood pressure, strengthen the heart and facilitate the elimination of toxins.
This rock soothes and reassures, it opens the mind to spirituality and helps to repair traumas suffered in the past. It would also increase sensitivity and empathy to better open up to others.
It would provide protection against one of the evils of our society, namely overexposure to the various and varied waves that pass through our homes. There are lamps carved in large pieces of raw pink quartz, which diffuse a soft and relaxing light and repel bad vibes.
Worn as a necklace, the gem would have the power to calm restless, even hyperactive children. In case of bruise, you can perform a light massage with a rose quartz: the hematoma would disappear more quickly...


Rose Quartz in Western Astrology is associated with the signs of Taurus and Libra. The related planet is Venus, symbol of love.
The Chinese incorporate pieces of rose quartz into the foundations of their homes during construction, to bring good luck to the home.

The Science of Rose Quartz

A passionate stone by nature, rose quartz is composed of silicon dioxide and gets its peachy pink to lavender tonalities from the manganese, phosphorus, lithium and titanium in its composition.
Its soft and milky coloration made it a collector's must-have, and in the

18 th century it was believed that a shortage of this mineral would occur, for its mining locations were starting to have low amounts to offer. Luckily, from several reserves in South Dakota, it's estimated that 680,000 tons of rose quartz will guarantee a constant supply for centuries to come.
It has a trigonal trapezohedral crystal system and a Mohs hardness of 7.

Rose Quartz throughout History

The oldest link to the usage of rose quartz for the production of jewelry dates back to around 9000 years ago in Mesopotamia, but this mineral had to wait until 1774 to have its first scientific mention by a German geologist.
In ancient Chinese culture, noble marriage ceremonies would always undergo a
crucial ritualistic procedure where the priest would give the bridegroom a

sword decorated with rose quartz and pink tourmaline, symbolizing eternal connection and true love between the couple.
Rose quartz will forever be associated with beauty and romance, and ancient Egyptian women would bear a rose quartz talisman whenever they felt like it's time to allow love to enter their lives, and its benefits as a youth elixir made it an adored mineral amongst the female elite of ancient Egypt.

Rose Quartz's healing properties

More than attracting love to its bearer, rose quartz allows pure unconditional love to be felt and, therefore, it increases the levels of compassion and forgiveness resonating from one's heart.
It is one of the most important minerals when it comes to awakening the kindest and brightest emotions of the human nature.

Allowing emotional wounds to be completely healed, rose quartz effectively banishes negativity and dark thoughts deep from one's mind.
Those experiencing commitment issues often find in rose quartz the heart-opening energies necessary to allow love to enter one's life.

Rose quartz inspires a loving mood that makes its bearer perceive reality in a softer and more gracious way, promoting patience, friendship and ensuring that the negative energies don't affect the mind and body's premature aging.
Rose Quartz care
Being a form of quartz, this mineral is extremely solid, even though it promotes the smoothest of emotions. No extreme attention to its integrity is necessary, but its beauty should be maintained by washing it in warm and soapy water or cleaning it in an ultrasonic jewelry cleaner.

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smoky quartz

smoky quartz


Smoky quartz is a variety of macrocrystalline quartz, which owes its color (all shades of brown) to the natural or induced irradiation of the aluminum salts it contains. It belongs to the group of oxides: it is a silicon dioxide and its formula is SiO2. Smoky Quartz is transparent to translucent, rarely opaque, and has a vitreous luster. Its hardness is 7 on the Mohs scale and its density is constant (2.65). Of conchoidal fracture, it has a trigonal crystalline system. Its fluorescence is variable and its pleochroism weak.


The color of a smoky quartz is due to the radioactivity of the natural environment in which it grew, the gamma rays having modified the elements and impurities it contains. Brown, grey, dark grey, black, smoky quartz has several shades, rarely homogeneous over the whole crystal but rather distributed in bands parallel to the faces of the crystal. The Morion variety designates a black or very dark brown smoky quartz. The Scottish Cairngorm is rather yellow-brown. Champagne quartz is reminiscent of the color of the drink of the same name… Some smoky quartz has an asterism effect (several rays of light on the surface, arranged in an asterisk) or cat's eye (a single transverse ray like a cat's pupil).


Smoky quartz is quite common. It forms in all types of geological contexts: igneous and magmatic rocks, such as pegmatites, sedimentary rocks, alpine fissures, hydrothermal veins, etc.
The main deposits mined are in Brazil, Madagascar, Scotland (Cairngorm variety), Switzerland, Ukraine... Haute-Vienne, in France, is home to large crystals of morion, especially in the Monts d'Ambazac, a small massif located on the western edge of the Massif Central.


Smoky quartz is a financially affordable stone whose physical characteristics make it easy to work with and therefore allow a wide variety of smoky quartz jewelry . It can be cut in a multitude of shapes: cushion, square, pear, round, emerald, briolette, cabochon, egg, sphere, shuttle, princess and many other products from the talent of lapidaries. They find there material to exercise all their creativity, because it is possible to work large pieces of smoky quartz at very affordable prices.
The deepest and most translucent colors are the most appreciated, with as few inclusions as possible, and this beautiful, slightly hazy clarity that makes this mineral so charming. You should know that all the beauty of smoky quartz flourishes in the soft light of the sun, especially in the morning and at the end of the afternoon, while it is less valued in artificial light.


The smoky depths of this type of quartz inspired clairvoyants and fortune tellers, especially in the 19th century: unlike rock crystal, which is perfectly limpid, smoky quartz ensured that they kept invisible to the eyes of the layman all the mysteries revealed to them. their divination balls…
Braemar Castle, from the 16th and 18th centuries, located in northern Scotland, contains an enormous smoky quartz crystal that weighs more than 23 kilos! Smoky quartz was widely used in Scotland, notably to decorate Scottish kilts and make pretty brooches, as well as dagger handles: called "sgian dhu", these traditional Highland daggers are worn inside the sock so which we see protruding from the handle. The latter should preferably be matched to the brooch…
Even larger crystals are found in Brazil (over 300 kg), but in the Swiss Valais, a 600 kg smoky quartz crystal was found in 1757! As for the famous Washington museum in the United States, the Smithsonian Institution, it presents among its collections of gems a faceted cut crystal of 4500 carats, that is to say 900 grams...


In lithotherapy, smoky quartz would be considered the stone of responsibility and refocusing. Thus, it would calm the strong emotions that confuse effective thinking, and thereby improve lucidity and concentration. By helping to reflect and eliminate irrational fears, anxieties, inner contradictions, smoky quartz would strengthen self-confidence but also the ability to open up to others and make the right decisions. He would chase away gloomy thoughts and fight depression. If the expectations of its bearer are too idealistic and far from reality, it would promote awareness and the refocusing of energies on more reasonable, more accessible objectives, avoiding failures and disillusions. It would stabilize the mood if it tends to appear jagged… Smoky quartz would help us connect more to our body and hear its messages to maintain health and balance: hunger, thirst, instinct, need for rest…
From a physical point of view, it would help to fight smoking (as well as any other form of addiction, for example to alcohol or drugs), would strengthen the connective tissue and the muscles (in particular the heart), as well as as kidneys, pancreas and genitals. Thus, it would have beneficial effects on fertility. Morion, the darkest of the smoky quartzes, would be associated with Aries while the lighter varieties would be linked to the signs of Scorpio, Libra and Capricorn. The corresponding planet is Pluto or Saturn depending on the case.

The Science of Quartz

The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc", which probably originated in Slavic (cf. Czech tvrd ý ("hard"), Polish twardy ("hard") ) . Quartz ,which is of Slavic origin (Czech miners called it křemen ) . Other sources attribute the word's origin to the Saxon word Querkluftertz, meaning cross-vein ore.

Quartz is the most common material identified as the mystical substance maban in Australian Aboriginal mythology. It is found regularly in passage tomb cemeteries in Europe in a burial context, such as Newgrange or Carrowmore in the Republic of Ireland. The Irish word for quartz is gray bell, which means 'stone of the sun'. Quartz was also used in Prehistoric Ireland, as well as many other countries, for stone tools; both vein quartz and rock crystal were knocked as part of the lithic technology of the prehistoric peoples.

Macrocrystalline varieties
Rock crystal Clear, colorless
Amethyst Purple, clear
Citrine Yellow to reddish orange to brown, greenish yellow Prasiolite Mint green, transparent

Rose quartz Pink, translucent
Rutilated quartz Contains acicular (needles) inclusions of rutile milky quartz White, translucent to opaque

Quartz throughout history

Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder believed quartz to be water ice, permanently frozen after great lengths of time. (The word "crystal" comes from the Greek word κρύσταλλος , "ice".) He supported this idea by saying that quartz is found near glaciers in the Alps, but not on volcanic mountains, and that large quartz crystals were fashioned into spheres to

cool the hands. He also knew of the ability of quartz to split light into a spectrum. This idea persisted until at least the 17th century.

In the 17th century, Nicolas Steno's study of quartz paved the way for modern crystallography. He discovered that no matter how distorted a quartz crystal, the long prism faces always made a perfect 60° angle.

Charles B. Sawyer invented the commercial quartz crystal manufacturing process in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. This initiated the transition from mined and cut quartz for electrical appliances to manufactured quartz.

Smoky quartz Brown to gray, opaque
Also Chalcedony is a cryptocrysta line form of silica consisting of fine intergrowths of

both quartz, and its monoclinic polymorph moganite.

Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz, or mixed rocks including quartz, often including contrasting bands or patterns of color, are agate, onyx, carnelian, and jasper.

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Garnet designates a family of minerals belonging to the group of Silicates. This family includes among others the varieties: Rhodolite, Spessartite, Hessonite, Tsavorite, Demantoid and above all, the red Pyrope: M3Al2(SiO4)3 and the red-violet Almandine: Fe3Al2(SiO4)3. Garnets are translucent to non-transparent, their luster is vitreous to resinous, oily, silky, their crystalline system is cubic. They have a hardness of 6 to 7.5, and their specific gravity is 3.5 to 4.3.


The word garnet naturally evokes this warm red color which corresponds to the most common version of this fine stone. However, variations in the chemical composition of this mineral allow for the existence of purple, green, brown and yellow garnets. Mozambique garnet is ruby ​​in color, Malaya garnet is orange, rhodolite garnet is purple pink, raspberry rhodolite tends towards pinkish-red, spessartite is orange-red, hessonite evokes caramel, demantoid is d a fresh green and the Tsavorite resembles an emerald. Only blue is not represented in the multicolored range of garnet. There are even very rare specimens which change color in the light of a candle, in certain deposits of Madagascar...


Garnet deposits are quite abundant. These minerals are found in magmatic rocks, in pegmatites and in particular in metasomatic rocks through contact with magma, which has led to the reorganization of minerals and their crystallization. They are numerous in the crystalline shales, and by degradation of the rocks, they are sometimes found in quantity in the alluvium. For the record, the mica schists of the Ile de Groix, in Brittany, contain countless garnets. The main garnet mining countries today are Tanzania, India and Madagascar. Other deposits are found in Russia, Mali, Canada, Brazil...


The choice of a garnet is above all a matter of taste, because the palette of colors available is very extensive. However, full attention must be paid to the quality of the cut, which will bring out the depth of the gem, and the more transparent it is, the higher its price will be.


The term "garnet" comes from the Latin "malum granatum", fruit with grains, which designated the pomegranate. Indeed, the grains of this shimmering color are strongly reminiscent of these gems. In the time of the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, garnets were called carbuncles. In Rome, Greece, as in ancient Egypt, garnets were often chiseled and represented animals or faces. The Bible says that to direct his ark in the darkness of the Flood, Noah lit himself with a garnet lantern. The Quran states that the fourth heaven is made up of carbuncles. The Vikings used garnets in funeral ceremonies, believing they had the ability to guide the dead to their paradise, Valhalla. The Museum of National Antiquities in Saint-Germain-en-Laye houses Merovingian jewelry featuring garnets. In the 18th century, European courtiers liked to adorn themselves with Bohemian garnets. Warriors from the principality of Hunza in northern Pakistan, which came under British control in 1891, fired on the British in Kashmir with garnet bullets, believing that their blood-red color gave them a more deadly character…


Garnet is often considered a stone of transformation, even transmutation. She would have the ability to help overcome difficulties to gain an experience, to transcend love passion and to improve sexual energy. Saint Hildegard of Bingen, an 11th century Benedictine nun who healed with stones, believed that garnet strengthened the heart. It would strengthen vital energy, treat bleeding problems and regulate blood circulation. It would protect against poisons. Not recommended for jealous and angry people, it would be more suitable for calm and calm people. This energizing stone would fight against fatigue and apathy and purify the chakras.


The month of birth associated with garnet is January, and garnet weddings correspond to 2 years of marriage. The stone is associated with the sign of Aquarius as well as Capricorn. In Vedic astrology, garnet is considered a powerful protective talisman against the evil influences of Rahu, the eclipse demon. In China, garnet is linked to the sign of the Rat. It wards off melancholy, and on the door it avoids malevolent intrusions.

The Science of Garnet

Even though the most common color when thinking of a garnet stone is red, this gorgeous group of minerals contains many different stones that due to a slight change of balance of their chemical composition creates a full rainbow of tonal possibilities, being blue the only color that it doesn't contain.

Garnet is a group of silicate minerals with cubic rhombic, dodecahedron and icositetrahedron crystal systems and a Mohs hardness of 6.5-7.5.
Garnet throughout History
Just like the vividly succulent seed of a pomegranate, garnet takes its name from the Latin

word granatus , meaning “seed”, and archeologists claim that these stones have been used by countless ancient civilizations, such as the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians, and later by the Celts and the Saxons.

Known for its protective abilities, garnet has been nicknamed “the stone of travelers” and has ornamented amulets and talismans of those that needed to illuminate their path and stay safe from danger.
This stone has been documented and beloved by many religions – Christians have always associated red garnet as a symbol of the blood of Christ, and its outstanding luminosity is said by Muslims to make the fourth heaven shine.

Garnet's healing properties

Ancient Egyptian folklore has connected garnet with the energy of fertility and was used in burials due to its relevance in the cycle of life. Those who bear garnet's luminous qualities are shown their own path through the willingness to serve others, as well as serving one's self.
Those who experienced garnet's everlasting light say that it effectively nullifies the effects of negative energies, creating space for positive vibrations to flood one's soul.

Garnet is associated with self-discovery and the assimilation of one's good and bad experiences in life, properly allowing memories to be awakened or put to sleep as it's more adequate in a given moment.
This family of minerals is strongly connected with both creative and sexual energy, gifting its bearer with a stronger and more fulfilling need for intimacy and a strongly founded self-confidence, and it's said to play a crucial role in the repair of DNA damage, as well as the body's absorption of vitamins and minerals.


Due to its resistant nature, garnet is not very prone to suffering serious accidental damages, but just like with any gemstone, proper care and love always applies. In order to clean it, soak it in lukewarm and soapy water and dry it with a soft cleaning cloth.

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Amethyst has been known since antiquity, we have found amethyst jewelry that the Egyptians wore at that time.
Pharaohs wore amethyst pendants. Amethyst also adorns the ring of all bishops, which is the same color as their attire: purple.
This is why amethyst has been called "the stone of the bishops".
She was supposed to bring them clarity of mind.
Amethyst has also always been present in the jewels of the British royal crown. It is a noble and elegant jewel.


The name Amethyst comes from the Greek: the private "a" precedes "methystos", drunkenness, because it was supposed to protect from this scourge... It probably comes from a Greek legend which says that the incorrigible Dionysus, on a sudden angry, decided to take revenge on the first human passing within his reach. The spell pointed to the young and innocent Amethyst… The god unleashed tigers on her, but Artemis intervened just in time to save the girl, transforming her into her own statue of the purest quartz. Came the time of remorse… Dionysus, in grief, dropped his cup of wine, which splashed the statue and tinted it purple…


Amethyst is a natural mineral occurring in the form of violet crystals of the trigonal-trapezohedral crystal class. Amethyst belongs to the family of Silicates. This fine stone is a variety of quartz, with the formula SiO2 (silicon dioxide), with a color modified by the presence of traces of iron. It is a rock of hardness 7 and density 2.65, with weak pleochroism and fluorescence. The crystal is clear, translucent to transparent, with a vitreous luster. Like all gemstones, the weight of an amethyst is measured in carats (unit ct, 1 carat = 0.20 g).


Amethysts come in all shades from pale almost pink mauve to deep dark purples, including parma. But there are also rare green varieties of amethyst or minerals mixed with yellow citrine. Some have pure, intense color, while others sparkle with warm bursts of red, purple and blue. A crystal is often darker at the tip than at the base: some stones are cut in one of these gradient zones ranging from purple (amethyst) to white (rock crystal).


Of magmatic origin, amethysts are born from the crystallization of silica, they cover centimetric or sometimes wide geodes of several meters in basaltic rocks; or they fill hydrothermal veins in plutonic rocks like granite. If it is found in Europe, Russia and India, the main deposits of amethyst are located in Brazil, in the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul, in Uruguay, Zambia and Madagascar.


First tip: let your instinct speak. Amethyst can be mounted on all types of jewelry such as earrings, bracelets, necklaces, amethyst pendants... Beyond the technical criteria, the most important thing is to feel seduced by the color and the l brilliance of this stone that speaks directly to the heart. However, it is good to know that the market value of amethyst varies according to the quality of the gem (brilliance, transparency, absence of inclusions) and the intensity of its color (the deeper the color, the more l amethyst will have a high price). The way of setting is also very important for the enhancement of the stone: A stone set with claws on an amethyst ring will be more luminous.


Resistant, this stone benefits from a great longevity. However, you should avoid exposing it too much to strong light, and especially to very high heat, otherwise it will change color from 250°C. Indeed, heating can be used in particular to produce citrines, yellow quartz stones. To clean your amethyst, a little water with dishwashing liquid will suffice, followed by rinsing with water then possibly with alcohol, and finally drying carefully.


Lithotherapy, the result of empirical methods combining experience and observation, has been practiced since the earliest times. It associates gems and minerals with healing properties. In the case of amethyst, this science attributes to it effects related to the appeasement of nervousness, stress, the dissipation of negative emotions such as anxiety or anger. Contact with this stone has the reputation of promoting nervous, intellectual and sentimental balance, thereby providing peaceful sleep and positive energy. In this context, it can provide assistance to schoolchildren and students. It is also credited with benefits for addiction problems. It opens the mind to everything that is a source of balance, of openness to others and to new ideas, of inner pacification, which can be particularly useful both in family life and for decision-making. It would help get rid of nightmares. It promotes openness to the spiritual world, a source of elevation of the soul. Buddhism associates it precisely with the seventh chakra, the one located at the top of the head.


Amethyst is traditionally given for the 48th wedding anniversary.
Amethyst is the birthstone of children born in February, possibly because of an association with Bishop Saint Valentine who, like most of his peers, wore this stone on his pastoral ring.
In Western astrology, it is the stone of the signs Virgo, Sagittarius, Aquarius, Pisces.
It is linked to the planets Jupiter and Neptune and to the element Water. The amethyst geode symbolizes the inner Temple.
In Chinese astrology, the gem is associated with the sign of the Dragon. This charismatic sign evokes power, intuition, stubbornness and a natural ability to seduce. It is the sign of voluntary and lucky personalities, often in search of power.

The Science of Amethyst

Because colors resonate a myriad of concepts, amethyst shouts royalty with its rich violet, lilac and purple tones. It is one of the countless varieties of quartz, a gem mineral that naturally thrives on our planet. Amethyst occurs mostly in granite and gneiss, as well as other igneous and metamorphic rocks; and depending on the geographic location where it's collected, its physical properties can vary significantly.

Amethyst throughout History

Due to its glorious royal appeal, amethyst has been adored for thousands of years, from ancient Egypt to the crown jewels of kingdoms of new and old. For many early civilizations this stone was much more appreciated and valued much higher than gems like ruby ​​or sapphire, and therefore its story will forever be painted in exquisite manners. Greek mythology tells us the tale of Dionysius who became tremendously intoxicated both with red wine and anger for a young virgin whose name was Amethyst – and after asking a fellow goddess for help and realizing that she turned Amethyst into a sparkling white stone, his flowing tears became mixed with the red wine in the chalice he was holding, and once spilled over the shimmering rock, it magically saturated until it magically became the royal-purple stone that we now call Amethyst.

Amethyst's healing properties

Etymologically, the word amethyst derives straight from the Greek word amethustos, which means being sober and having a clear and focused mind. Since the stories of old, amethyst is known for inhibiting intoxicated states of mind, repelling dark thoughts, sharpen intelligence and business skills, protecting the immune system and successfully driving its bearer to whatever goal it has in mind. Amethyst is known for making one find its own self by bringing forth the brightest and most sincere humane aspirations while keeping one's animalistic and primal nature in check.

Amethyst cleanses both the body and the mind, bringing balance and blissful stability to its bearer's life, thus being highly recommended for those dealing with a great amount of daily stress that inhibits any possibility of relaxation and deep sleep. Those facing depression or chemical dependence also benefit from the mineral's healing properties, for it brings harmony and peace to one's thoughts and true will.

Amethyst care

In order to keep your amethysts eternally vivid, make sure to keep them safe from direct sunlight and extreme heat, as well as any toxic household product. Keeping them clean simply requires a graceful scrubbing with a soft cloth in a solution of soap and lukewarm water.

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